Wild mushrooms of Landour, Mussoorie

Autumn season has arrived on the hillside of Landour, Mussoorie as the ferns have started to turn yellowish brown. But the forest floor is still under the spell of monsoon magic as diverse mushrooms are still springing up through the forest floors. Everyday I come across these mushrooms of different, shapes, sizes and colours. Some mushrooms are edible, while some are poisonous, few are symbiotic or mycorrhizal too. Some love to grow on the rotten tree stumps, some prefer the rhizosphere of particular tree species only. Few like the rocky crevasses and few pop out from the mosses. It’s fascinating to observe them grow each day. The forests in the hillside consist mainly of Oak, Rhododendrons and intermittent Deodar and Pine. These mushrooms are sometimes mycorrhizal which are also an important component of forest ecology. They form wide networks in the rhizosphere of the forest creating a network for communication. This year the hillside is experiencing extended rainy days which is often an usual seasonal variation. The moisture and the warm humid temperature speeds up the decomposition process which is favorable for the mushrooms to flourish. I tried to capture these mushrooms and also attempted to identify them.

© Earth ball mushroom

I came across these round mushrooms over the moss covered forest floor, beneath the Ilex tree. They are called as Earth ball mushrooms (Scleroderma sp.). These are one type of poisonous mushrooms. They like to grow in acidic soils. This fungus was first described in scientific literature by Christian Hendrik Persoon in 1801. (Persoon’s Synopsis Methodica Fungorum, published in 1801, marked the starting point for taxonomy of gasteromycete fungi.)

© Earth ball mushroom (Scleroderma sp.)

While walking under the Oak trees, I came across these interesting whitish mushrooms which were growing scattered in one moss covered slope. Helvella crispa, an edible mushroom is also known as the White saddle, Elfin saddle or Common helvel. The mushroom can be identified by its irregular wafer like whitish cap, fluted stem which is elastic and fuzzy under surface. Literature says that Helvella crispa is edible but of poor quality.

© Helvella crispa
© Helvella crispa
© Helvella crispa on moss covered forest floor

I was startled by the view of this black mushroom growing on the forest slope near Rhododendron trees. At first it gave me the impression of a dead insect. This is Helvella lacunosa also known as the slate grey saddle or elfin saddle. This mushroom is considered edible by some although there are reports about the toxicity of this mushroom often leading to gastrointestinal disorders.

© Helvella lacunosa

Looks like an oyster shell, this reddish brown mushroom is a mushroom belonging to the Ganoderma genus. Ganodermas are well known for their medicinal properties. However, I am not sure whether the Ganoderma mushroom in the following picture has medicinal properties or not.

©Ganoderma sp.

The following mushroom is also known as Old man of the woods. One can easily spot this mushroom due to its typing form. The old man of the woods (Strobilomyces sp.) is a decent edible mushroom with a very striking appearance that makes it difficult to forget or mistake. I came across this mushroom for the first time naturally growing on the Oak forest floor.

© Old man of the woods (Strobilomyces sp.)

The following fungi looks like an Hygrocybe  (gilled fungi) although I am not sure.

©Waxgills??

The following fungi looks like a candy cap mushroom, I am not sure.

© Polyporus mushroom

Found this infected Polyporus mushroom growing out rotten tree stump of Chir Pine tree.

© Mycena sp.

The mushroom in the above picture belongs to the Mycena genus It is a large genus of small saprotrophic mushrooms that are rarely more than a few centimeters in width. They are characterized by a white spore print, a small conical or bell-shaped cap, and a thin fragile stem. Most are gray or brown.

© Near circular shadow of mushroom

Besides the above mentioned mushrooms I also came across various Boletes and Old man of the forest too.

© Infected mushroom
© Mushroom on tree bark
© Mushrooms in Landour, Mussoorie

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Monsoon blooms in the hillside: Landour, Mussoorie

With changing seasons in the hillside, the colour palette on the hill slopes also changes. It feels as if, with each changing season, nature changes its wardrobe. During the monsoons it is mostly pink, mauve, yellows and greens. While passing through the woods, I could see the graceful and tender Begonias have started blossoming. They bestow a pinkish hue on the hill slopes.

©Begonia picta
© Begonias on the hill slopes

The ferns already sprouted forming a lush green understory.

©Polypodiodes naponica

The mosses have coated the tree barks, rocks and pavements, awaiting the mist and the clouds to embrace it.

©Peacock or spike moss?

Mushrooms of different shapes, size and colour have also sprung up, they look like tiny buttons. Found this tiny little one peeping out of the decomposing wood on the hill slopes. Near perfect circular shadow it casted on the floor. There are wonderful shapes and forms in the nature around us.

A few steps further, the hill slopes are covered by Purple Roscoe Lily. They belong to the ginger family.

©Purple Roscoe Lily (picture source wikipedia)

I came across this little butterfly, it seems like a common four-ring to me, I am not sure.

©Common Four-ring butterfly

One can easily hear the chirping sunbirds and woodpeckers. All are very busy completing their daily chores. I must also hurry home now to complete my chores. On my way back home I came across this beautiful scenic panorama.

© Mesmeric sunset

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Verbascum thapsus or Common Mullein: A medicinally important plant of the hills

No sooner the monsoon hits the dusty hill slopes of the hillside of Landour, Mussoorie. The tiny seeds of common Mullein germinate and peek through the picturesque landscape . Commonly known as Adam’s flannel, Beggar’s blanket and even the Candlewick plant, it is a riveting sight to see this enthralling plant species blooming in the wild. It also resembles a monkey tail and locally it’s known as ‘Bandarpuchre’ . The leaves appear to me as if I am touching Goat’s ear, soft and fluffy. I call it the Goat’s ear plant.

© Verbascum thapsus flowers

One can come across Mullein growing along the roadside, agricultural lands and backyard at this altitude. The flowers are in full bloom these days. The blooming flowers spiral up the stalk emerge from the velvety rosette of leaves. Besides it’s occurrence in Mussoorie, Uttarakhand I found this plant growing in its natural habitat in the remote village of Mana near Badrinath and Gangotri also.

© Mullein growing abundantly in Mana village, Uttarakhand

According to old superstition it’s believed that witches used lamps and candles provided with wicks of Mullein in their incantations. Still in rural parts of Europe and Asia, Mullein is used to drive away evil spirits. Being a sure safeguard against evil spirits and magic, and from the ancient classics, it was this plant which Ullysess took to protect himself against the wiles of Circe.  

© Verbascum thapsus

Verbascum thapsus (L.) is a biennial, perennial or, rarely, an annual with a deep tap root. In its first year it produces a low vegetative rosette up to 60 cm in diameter which overwinters and is followed in the succeeding growing season by a stout flowering stem 5-18 dm tall. V. thapsus is native to Europe and Asia (Semenza et al. 1978). Although the leaves and flowers can be foraged, the hairy leaves can sometimes cause irritation. Some say that the seeds are poisonous. The numerous tiny seeds lay dormant in the soil and sprouts when the favorable season arrives.

© Mullein peeking through the landscape

Since ancient times V. thapsus has been used as an anodyne pectoral and remedy for coughs and diarrhoea. The leaves may provide some stimulatory effects when smoked. Mullein was recorded by Aristotle as a fish poison. It is often grown as an ornamental. A methanol extract from the plant has been effective against mosquito larvae (Gross and Werner, 1978). Mullein is currently found in neglected meadows and pasture lands, along fence rows and roadsides. It occurs in areas where the mean annual precipitation is 50 – 150 cm and the growing season is at least 140 days. Mullein is easily outcompeted in areas with a densely vegetated ground cover but readily grows in disturbed sites. Because of its low dispersal rate, the establishment of mullein in a particular site depends primarily on the presence of dormant seeds in the soils. It is an ephemeral plant which is eventually displaced by other plants in undisturbed sites. In Uttarakhand, the population of the target species is scattered. Natural products including medicinal plants have a great significance due to their wide range of therapeutic potential to treat a large number of ailments,

© Mullein growing near farmland

Ecological Threat
Once established it grows quickly to form a dense ground cover. It can overtake and displace native species. At the high densities, it appears to prevent establishment of native herbs and grasses following fires or other disturbances. Verbascum thapsus occurs in areas with an average annual precipitation of 20-60 in. (0.5-1.5 m) and a 140-day growing season. It prefers well-drained soils with pH 6.5 to 7.8. It prefers dry sandy soils but can grow in chalk and limestone. It can be found in neglected meadows, forest openings, pastures, fence rows, roadsides, and industrial areas. Verbascum thapsus has the ability to adapt to a variety of site conditions. It grows more vigorously than native herbs and shrubs. V. thapsus threatens natural meadows and forest openings. It is a prolific seed bearer with seeds remaining viable for long periods in the soil.

© Verbascum thapsus in its natural habitat

Mullein has been used as an alternative medicine for centuries, and in many countries throughout the world, the value of Great Mullein as a proven medicinal herb is now backed by scientific evidence. Some valuable constituents contained in Mullein are Coumarin and Hesperidin, they exhibit many healing abilities. An infusion is taken internally in the treatment of a wide range of chest complaints and also to treat diarrhoea and bleeding of the lungs and bowels. Mullein oil is a very medicinal and valuable destroyer of disease germs. An infusion of the flowers in olive oil is used as earache drops, or as a local application in the treatment of piles and other mucous membrane inflammations.

© Somewhere near Mana village, Alaknanda river

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Nature walk with kids: Forestry for kids

It’s monsoon in the hillside and life is bustling in the woods. The ferns which went dormant are budding, mosses and fungi mushrooming everywhere, insects are busy finding shelter, along with diverse rainy day bird visitors. I thought it was a great time to familiarise children with these minute nature’s theatricals. Moreover, the children are mostly inside classrooms taking lessons, so going out was a good idea.

©Trees laden with fresh ferns

Children came across this mushroom, which bloomed out of an old tree stump. It seems like a Polyporus mushroom to me. But looking at its appearance, I really don’t want to check whether it is edible or not.

© Polyporus mushroom
© Polyporus mushroom
© Polyporus mushroom

Someone was really trying hard to crossover the mossy wall before it rains again. The snail with elongated shell uses its mucus and protruded eyes to travel long distances. They mostly hide underground in winters.

©Snail with elongated shell

The horse chestnut tree has started bearing fruits. It was laden with beautiful flowers before the summer break. I wonder who feeds on its fruits, I will be on the look out.

© Fruits of Horse Chestnut tree

A couple of Gray winged Blackbird are also on the lookout for food on the forest floor beneath the Horse Chestnut tree. How diligently it turns over each leaf litter and twigs to search insects. It seems that they might have made a nest somewhere nearby. The male Gray blackbird was eager and alert to protect its territory. The female gently made poise. We respected their territory and stepped back.

© Female Gray winged Blackbird

Although we wanted to explore more, it started drizzling and time was a constraint, so we made our way back to the classroom, only to explore nature more in the coming days.

© Hillside pathway
©A misty day in the Hillside

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Ganga Tulsi, Gangotri: homonym or different species?

Tulsi, an aromatic medicinal plant finds its special place in Hinduism. It is often said that the worship of lord Vishnu is incomplete without Tulsi. But the species of Tulsi used for worshipping the deity varies from place to place. Be it the famous Vrindavan, Badrinath or Gangotri, the variants of Tulsi vary altogether. Mostly Ocimum tenuiflorum or Ocimum sanctum L. belonging to the family Lamiaceae is used as holy basil, however in Badrinath, Badri Tulsi (Origanum vulgare) forms an important part of offerings to the lord. In Gangotri, twigs of Ganga Tulsi (Artemisa acrorum Ledeb. now A. gmelinii Web. ex Stechm): Russian Wormwood, ‘Ganga Tulsi’, ‘Chamra’, ‘Kala-purcha’ is used to worship the goddess.

© Badrinath temple
© Gaṅgōtrī temple

Tulsi, a sacred plant in Hinduism is also considered as the manifestation of goddess Tulsi. The leaves of the plant are essential in the worship of lord Vishnu. It is native to the Indian subcontinent and widespread as a cultivated plant throughout the Southeast Asian countries. However, at altitudes beyond 10,000 ft it’s difficult for O. tenuiflorum to flourish but various species of Oreganum sp. and Artemisa sp. are ecologically adapted to survive in these temperate climatic zones.

©Artemisa acrorum Ledeb. now A. gmelinii Web. ex Stechm): Russian Wormwood, ‘Ganga Tulsi’, ‘Chamra’, ‘Kala-purcha’

Due to ecological and climatic variations, it is difficult to cultivate Ocimum tenuiflorum or Ocimum sanctum L. at high altitudes, hence, the locally available medicinally important aromatic plant species are preferred to worship the deities.

© Landscape near Gaṅgōtrī

Ganga Tulsi’, ‘chamra’, ‘Kala-purcha’ herb is usually 0.5-0.9 m. high found in the dry alpine region from 2300-3000 m. In Malari and Niti the herb is used as incense and also offered to the local deities. The leaf twig is offered in Gangotri temple and is known as ‘Ganga Tulsi’.

© Bhagirathi river in Gangotri

The essential oil and chemical constituents of Ganga Tulsi mainly comprise of limonene (45.6%), borneol (11.1%), farnesol (9.2%),thujyl alcohol(9.0%), geranyl acetate (6.9%), α-pinene (6.5%), nerol(3.6%), thujone (2.8%), thujyl acetate (0.9%),cineole (0.2%) Shah [19] and (Annual Report CIMAP, 1983-84). Due to meagre conservation efforts the plant species is facing threat in its natural habitat due to over extraction. During the course of my visit to Gaṅgōtrī, i could see that littering plastics is a serious concern. Eupatorium species is also slowly paving its way to dominate the forest floor. Significant adoption of conservation measures to protect the biodiversity and landscape is eminent in the region. My humble request to the tourists to travel responsibly to protect the sanctity of the ecosystem in the upper reaches of the Himalayas.

© Bhagirathi river in Gangotri
© Bhagirathi river near Gaṅgōtrī

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Katapatthar : obscure destination and nature trail

It’s the month of June and summer vacations have just begun. The monsoon season is about to begin and very soon the rivers and canals in Uttarakhand will be overflowing, so we planned for a short offbeat road trip towards the outskirts of Dehradun near a place called Katapatthar. It took us around two and half hours to reach the destination from Landour, Mussoorie. Katapatthar is roughly around 75 km from Landour. The scenic landscape is situated around the outskirts of Dehradun city alongside river Yamuna. One can see the beautiful Jaunsar Bawar range across the river bank. Katapatthar has historical linkage to the periods of Mahabharata and the ancient Ashoka Empire.

© Katapatthar Canal

The lush green paddy fields, agricultural lands and village life pacify restless eyes after a long drive. The remarkable architectural designs and engineering of the water canals created during imperial times are still functioning well and support irrigation facilities to the nearby fields.

© Arched roof of water channel system, Katapatthar
© Clear water flowing through canals, Katapatthar

According to the Uttarakhand Irrigation Department, in the year, 1840-41, Captain Cautley prepared a project for irrigating the extreme western portion of the Dun by means of a canal fed from the river Yamuna. The construction of the work was warmly recommended by the Civil authorities as the only means of developing a thinly populated but rich tract of country in which there was then no water available, not only for irrigation, but even for drinking and domestic purposes, beyond that supplied by a single well in the village of Pirthipur, but the project met with some opposition from the Canal Department, on the grounds that the diversion of a volume of about 80 cusec from the river would cause a serious diminution in the supply available for the Eastern and Western Yamuna Canals. The project remained in abeyance for some 8 or 10 years, after which the construction of the work was taken up, and the canal was opened in May 1854.

© Clear stream of water flowing through canals near Uttarakhand Irrigation Department, Katapatthar

As soon as we entered the Katapatthar village we were welcomed by the dense Mango and litchi orchards. The clear waters gurgling through the channels create a mindful soothing ambience. After many long days I was walking under the shade of the orchards.

© Mango orchards, Katapatthar village

I was astonished that the Mango trees had no mangoes although it is the mango season in the country, which I later found out that they were already harvested as the bats create menace partying on the mangoes. The local people told me that the bats already feasted on the litchi now mango is their new delight. I found the bats resting on the tall Eucalyptus trees before entering Katapatthar village. The villagers were very generous and they gifted me with delicious Langra mango. Although Alfonso mango is one of the most priced varieties of mango worldwide, I have a close affinity with the Langra mangoes.

© Dalbergia sissoo pods

We paced forward and I found that the locality is also home to numerous other plant species with intermittent Dalbergia sissoo, mulberry and Ringal bamboo species, Murraya koenigii and Ficus sp. Came across this beautiful fern Northern maidenhair (Adiantum pedatum).

© Northern Maidenhair (Adiantum pedatum)

Also came across this thorny bush, Carrisa opaca also known as Karondi. Carissa opaca has ethnomedicinal properties (Apocynaceae), which is traditionally used for a number of purposes, including jaundice, hepatitis, rheumatism and asthma.

© Carissa opaca

The trail towards the canal had slight gradient and gentle slopes also somewhere muddy. As the trail comes to the end, one can see the picturesque view of the panorama of the beautiful river bed flowing alongside the canal overlooking the majestic Jaunsar mountain ranges. The clear river Yamuna flowing through the boulders and cobbles is still in the youth stage in this geographical terrain.

©Canal System, Katapatthar

We too couldn’t resist the clear water flowing and got our feet in the soothing water. On my way back I came across these old canal switches which were used to control the inflow of water flowing into the landmass, now in ruins.

© Switch Gate in ruins, Katapatthar

There was also this old water wheel on the canal.

©Water wheel in the canals, Katapatthar

After some time relaxing in the water, I heard the sirens blow. The guards said that they will be opening the channels and the water levels will rise. So it was also time for us to return home. Somewhere, I was happy that the site was not yet commercialised for tourists, otherwise the place would have lost its essence, although litter was also eminent alongside the trail and riverbank. It was overall a lovely experience for me and my family. I humbly request all tourists and travellers to travel responsibly and protect and conserve the serenity of the tourist sites.

© Katapatthar water canal

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Citylight limit line: Mussoorie – Dehradun

The citylight limit line is the highest limit perpetual of light covering the cities during evening time. It can be observed from an elevation of about 1500msl. Ideal locations to observe the citylight limit are TV towers, hilltops, Hawaghar and skyscrapers. It is an irregular line which divides the urban areas from the forests, rural areas, degraded land, agricultural fields i.e. areas with less human interference. The citylight limit of elevated landmass can also be observed from the plains. It can be best observed during clear weather during evening time when the sun is set.

Citylight limit line of Mussoorie, Necklace of Queen of the Hills
©sumanmitraphotography

The citylight limit line of Mussoorie as viewed from Dehradun looks as if the Queen of the hills is wearing a shimmering diamond necklace for the evening. The citylight limit line can also be a parameter to know the rate of urbanization of cities.

Light trail at Mussoorie bypass road
©sumanmitraphotography

The city’s light intensity is high around the heart or core of the city and slowly wanes away towards its boundary. The lights give a shimmering effect due to the interference of the light waves, diffraction, reflection and refraction. Based on the extent of city area, rate of urbanization, human settlements, road traffic, land boundary and availability of electricity supply during evening time, the citylight limit line forms different patterns and shape.The citylight limit line forms irregular line which are mainly Straight, Curved, Dotted, Dashed, Contour, Zig Zag, Implied, Curvilinear line.

The citylight limit line of Dehradun, Uttarakhand
©sumanmitraphotography

It is difficult to make out the entire citylight limit line from one particular aspect of elevation. However, there are following patterns which are mainly Polygonal, Clustered, Compact, Semi-compact, Dispersed, Radial and many more.

The citylight limit line of Dehradun, Uttarakhand during a moonlit night ©sumanmitraphotography

With changes in globalisation and urbanization the citylight limit line can also shift and change shapes and patterns. High levels of air pollution, smoke or fog can affect the visibility of the citylight limit line. In Mussoorie, the citylight limit line of Dehradun is best visible from the Mussoorie Dehradun highway, Mall road, Barlowganj and Jhadipani areas. The shimmering bright lights capture artistic imaginations and draw tourists to witness the sunset and the mesmerizing city lights.

The citylight limit line of Dehradun Uttarakhand from Landour, Uttarakhand ©sumanmitraphotography

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Forestry for kids: leaf prints by preschoolers

It’s a fascinating experience to familiarise little children with their surrounding trees, forests and nature. Their curious and eager minds, eager to explore the unknown, motivates them to touch, feel and sense their basic surroundings. Little children are observant and look closely at the objects of interest, be it a little lady bug inside a coiled leaf or fine rock fractures.

© ladybugs taking shelter in leaves
© little insect nest in rock fractures

Preschool is the best time to create and develop their love towards forests and nature. Their hands on experiences with leaves, rocks, mosses, barks, soil succour their inquisitiveness to feel and realise the texture, shape, size, hardness, softness, which further develops sensory skills and mindfulness.

Summers in the hillsides are the perfect time of year for appreciating beautiful lush green foliage and the plant diversity. The different shapes and sizes of leaves provide a plethora of opportunities for creative art projects. Children of early year childhood program captured the beauty of leaves in this simple art activity designed to bring the beauty of leaves in an outdoor learning experience.

Leaf printing is a process where a natural leaf is painted with colour and a direct impression of it is made over a material of the artist’s choice. Naturalists and researchers have used nature printing for centuries as a way to produce an image of nature that can be catalogued and preserved. These leaf prints are not only beautiful but also practical depiction of the basic learning about different leaf shape patterns and seasonal changes.

© leaf prints

Nature is the best teacher. Activities like leaf prints are little steps towards safe and healthy future. They have truly said that a time spent in nature is never wasted. As today’s children are tomorrow’s future, the foundation of love towards nature and environment now, will create a safe, healthy and humane world for the coming future.


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Forestry for kids: Saving Deodar and Oak forest from invasive vines

Vines and climbers are certain plant species which climb by tendrils or hooks or aerial roots or twining or creeps on the ground. Besides being ornamental, these vines are a component of the biodiversity and help sequester Carbon. But it is observed that few of the climbers, act as semi-parasites on the plants they cling to. Almost all climbers which attach themselves to other plants for support only, may even kill the supporting plants by strangling them or blocking out light. These vines are slowly becoming invasive in the hillslopes of Mussoorie, Landour.

The forest patches of mixed Oak – Rhododendron – Deodar and Pine in the hillslopes of Landour, Mussoorie are under the attack of such vines which are slowly becoming invasive.

The fast growing vines take support of the trees, which gradually spread along the tree trunk slowly traversing towards tree canopy. They sometimes prevent sunlight to reach the leaves of the tree creating competition for getting necessary nutrients and liquids.

Eventually, when left uncontrolled and unhindered, these vines can fully conceal a tree’s trunk and its branches. The thick layer of the leaves of the vines conceals the cankers or any other tree diseases, paving way for pathogens to attack the trees. The restricted exposure to cleanse air promotes growth of pathogenic fungi, which may ultimately result in tree infection gradually affecting forest health.

The global climatic changes have triggered the fast growth of these vines and foresters are in dilemma whether or not to control the spread of vines. Many foresters and environmentalists are in support of protecting the majestic trees from these semi parasitic climbers and vines. HFRI former director, called for a pragmatic approach to deal with the issue. He added that, the climbers growing and spreading faster than the trees was not a healthy situation. A rational policy should be adopted to serve the twin purpose of protecting the already- threatened trees and conserving the biodiversity. I too believe it is very important to eliminate such plants which are unwanted or weeds which are affecting the health of the trees. The common vines on the Oak and Deodar trees are Hedera helix or the common ivy, Vitis sp. (*elimination doesn’t mean completely wiping out the species from natural habitat but controlling overspread of the vines and climbers which is harmful for the forests).

How can children help manage forests?Involving children in forest management related activities not only engages children in meaningful action in the face of social isolation and climate crisis but also creating healthy ecosystems. When children practically experience hands-on forest/outdoor related activities, they experience a deeper connection with the very basic elements of life. It further aids towards the development of their psychosocial-emotional, rational as well logical application of concepts in field situation. In one instance, the children helped to remove the excess vines on the trees with the help of pruners. The vines were left to dry slowly on the trees. As the forest becomes healthier, so does the ecosystem within it. Healthy, strong trees attract diverse wildlife, which makes the forest to be even healthier. Effective forest management truly improves the environment for both flora and fauna.


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Forestry for kids: Tree Plantation for Mother’s Day

One of the most extraordinary relationship in the world is the relationship between the mother and her child. Mother’s are the basic foundation of our very existence and first teacher of our life.

©Children participating in Tree Plantation on the account of Mother’s Day

The unique relationship is priceless in terms of her unfathomable love, sacrifice and selfless dedication towards her child. Therefore Mother’s Day is celebrated today all over the world to acknowledge and honour all the Mothers. Mother as described by Rudyard Kipling is as follows

God could not be everywhere, so he made Mother

~ Rudyard Kipling
©Children participating in Tree Plantation on the account of Mother’s Day

The term Mother, refers to nurture, care and support which is also very relatable to the trees growing the forest. The trees laden with fruits bear seeds which fall on the ground and get nourished by the nutrients.

©Children participating in Tree Plantation on the account of Mother’s Day

The big speechless tree, stands at one place and silently supports the baby plants by transferring nutrients and water through underground mycorrhizal networks. Besides, these trees are home to multitude species birds, insects and animals where they carry forward their life cycles, maintaining gene pools.

©Children participating in Tree Plantation on the  account of Mother’s Day

So to commemorate Mother’s Day little children participated in a tree plantation activity along the hillslopes. These trees will not only help to conserve soil, but also will provide various ecosystem services in the coming future.

©Children participating in Tree Plantation on the  account of Mother’s Day

Just like how mothers make the world better in so many ways, trees are central to creating a healthy climate, clean air, clean water, and providing natural habitat to the biodiversity. Trees planted in the outdoors are ideal gifts not only for Mother’s but also for our Planet.

©Tree Plantation activity by children on the  account of Mother’s Day

HAPPY MOTHER’S DAY!!

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