Katapatthar : obscure destination and nature trail

It’s the month of June and summer vacations have just begun. The monsoon season is about to begin and very soon the rivers and canals in Uttarakhand will be overflowing, so we planned for a short offbeat road trip towards the outskirts of Dehradun near a place called Katapatthar. It took us around two and half hours to reach the destination from Landour, Mussoorie. Katapatthar is roughly around 75 km from Landour. The scenic landscape is situated around the outskirts of Dehradun city alongside river Yamuna. One can see the beautiful Jaunsar Bawar range across the river bank. Katapatthar has historical linkage to the periods of Mahabharata and the ancient Ashoka Empire.

© Katapatthar Canal

The lush green paddy fields, agricultural lands and village life pacify restless eyes after a long drive. The remarkable architectural designs and engineering of the water canals created during imperial times are still functioning well and support irrigation facilities to the nearby fields.

© Arched roof of water channel system, Katapatthar
© Clear water flowing through canals, Katapatthar

According to the Uttarakhand Irrigation Department, in the year, 1840-41, Captain Cautley prepared a project for irrigating the extreme western portion of the Dun by means of a canal fed from the river Yamuna. The construction of the work was warmly recommended by the Civil authorities as the only means of developing a thinly populated but rich tract of country in which there was then no water available, not only for irrigation, but even for drinking and domestic purposes, beyond that supplied by a single well in the village of Pirthipur, but the project met with some opposition from the Canal Department, on the grounds that the diversion of a volume of about 80 cusec from the river would cause a serious diminution in the supply available for the Eastern and Western Yamuna Canals. The project remained in abeyance for some 8 or 10 years, after which the construction of the work was taken up, and the canal was opened in May 1854.

© Clear stream of water flowing through canals near Uttarakhand Irrigation Department, Katapatthar

As soon as we entered the Katapatthar village we were welcomed by the dense Mango and litchi orchards. The clear waters gurgling through the channels create a mindful soothing ambience. After many long days I was walking under the shade of the orchards.

© Mango orchards, Katapatthar village

I was astonished that the Mango trees had no mangoes although it is the mango season in the country, which I later found out that they were already harvested as the bats create menace partying on the mangoes. The local people told me that the bats already feasted on the litchi now mango is their new delight. I found the bats resting on the tall Eucalyptus trees before entering Katapatthar village. The villagers were very generous and they gifted me with delicious Langra mango. Although Alfonso mango is one of the most priced varieties of mango worldwide, I have a close affinity with the Langra mangoes.

© Dalbergia sissoo pods

We paced forward and I found that the locality is also home to numerous other plant species with intermittent Dalbergia sissoo, mulberry and Ringal bamboo species, Murraya koenigii and Ficus sp. Came across this beautiful fern Northern maidenhair (Adiantum pedatum).

© Northern Maidenhair (Adiantum pedatum)

Also came across this thorny bush, Carrisa opaca also known as Karondi. Carissa opaca has ethnomedicinal properties (Apocynaceae), which is traditionally used for a number of purposes, including jaundice, hepatitis, rheumatism and asthma.

© Carissa opaca

The trail towards the canal had slight gradient and gentle slopes also somewhere muddy. As the trail comes to the end, one can see the picturesque view of the panorama of the beautiful river bed flowing alongside the canal overlooking the majestic Jaunsar mountain ranges. The clear river Yamuna flowing through the boulders and cobbles is still in the youth stage in this geographical terrain.

©Canal System, Katapatthar

We too couldn’t resist the clear water flowing and got our feet in the soothing water. On my way back I came across these old canal switches which were used to control the inflow of water flowing into the landmass, now in ruins.

© Switch Gate in ruins, Katapatthar

There was also this old water wheel on the canal.

©Water wheel in the canals, Katapatthar

After some time relaxing in the water, I heard the sirens blow. The guards said that they will be opening the channels and the water levels will rise. So it was also time for us to return home. Somewhere, I was happy that the site was not yet commercialised for tourists, otherwise the place would have lost its essence, although litter was also eminent alongside the trail and riverbank. It was overall a lovely experience for me and my family. I humbly request all tourists and travellers to travel responsibly and protect and conserve the serenity of the tourist sites.

© Katapatthar water canal

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Citylight limit line: Mussoorie – Dehradun

The citylight limit line is the highest limit perpetual of light covering the cities during evening time. It can be observed from an elevation of about 1500msl. Ideal locations to observe the citylight limit are TV towers, hilltops, Hawaghar and skyscrapers. It is an irregular line which divides the urban areas from the forests, rural areas, degraded land, agricultural fields i.e. areas with less human interference. The citylight limit of elevated landmass can also be observed from the plains. It can be best observed during clear weather during evening time when the sun is set.

Citylight limit line of Mussoorie, Necklace of Queen of the Hills
©sumanmitraphotography

The citylight limit line of Mussoorie as viewed from Dehradun looks as if the Queen of the hills is wearing a shimmering diamond necklace for the evening. The citylight limit line can also be a parameter to know the rate of urbanization of cities.

Light trail at Mussoorie bypass road
©sumanmitraphotography

The city’s light intensity is high around the heart or core of the city and slowly wanes away towards its boundary. The lights give a shimmering effect due to the interference of the light waves, diffraction, reflection and refraction. Based on the extent of city area, rate of urbanization, human settlements, road traffic, land boundary and availability of electricity supply during evening time, the citylight limit line forms different patterns and shape.The citylight limit line forms irregular line which are mainly Straight, Curved, Dotted, Dashed, Contour, Zig Zag, Implied, Curvilinear line.

The citylight limit line of Dehradun, Uttarakhand
©sumanmitraphotography

It is difficult to make out the entire citylight limit line from one particular aspect of elevation. However, there are following patterns which are mainly Polygonal, Clustered, Compact, Semi-compact, Dispersed, Radial and many more.

The citylight limit line of Dehradun, Uttarakhand during a moonlit night ©sumanmitraphotography

With changes in globalisation and urbanization the citylight limit line can also shift and change shapes and patterns. High levels of air pollution, smoke or fog can affect the visibility of the citylight limit line. In Mussoorie, the citylight limit line of Dehradun is best visible from the Mussoorie Dehradun highway, Mall road, Barlowganj and Jhadipani areas. The shimmering bright lights capture artistic imaginations and draw tourists to witness the sunset and the mesmerizing city lights.

The citylight limit line of Dehradun Uttarakhand from Landour, Uttarakhand ©sumanmitraphotography

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Forestry for kids: leaf prints by preschoolers

It’s a fascinating experience to familiarise little children with their surrounding trees, forests and nature. Their curious and eager minds, eager to explore the unknown, motivates them to touch, feel and sense their basic surroundings. Little children are observant and look closely at the objects of interest, be it a little lady bug inside a coiled leaf or fine rock fractures.

© ladybugs taking shelter in leaves
© little insect nest in rock fractures

Preschool is the best time to create and develop their love towards forests and nature. Their hands on experiences with leaves, rocks, mosses, barks, soil succour their inquisitiveness to feel and realise the texture, shape, size, hardness, softness, which further develops sensory skills and mindfulness.

Summers in the hillsides are the perfect time of year for appreciating beautiful lush green foliage and the plant diversity. The different shapes and sizes of leaves provide a plethora of opportunities for creative art projects. Children of early year childhood program captured the beauty of leaves in this simple art activity designed to bring the beauty of leaves in an outdoor learning experience.

Leaf printing is a process where a natural leaf is painted with colour and a direct impression of it is made over a material of the artist’s choice. Naturalists and researchers have used nature printing for centuries as a way to produce an image of nature that can be catalogued and preserved. These leaf prints are not only beautiful but also practical depiction of the basic learning about different leaf shape patterns and seasonal changes.

© leaf prints

Nature is the best teacher. Activities like leaf prints are little steps towards safe and healthy future. They have truly said that a time spent in nature is never wasted. As today’s children are tomorrow’s future, the foundation of love towards nature and environment now, will create a safe, healthy and humane world for the coming future.


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Forestry for kids: Saving Deodar and Oak forest from invasive vines

Vines and climbers are certain plant species which climb by tendrils or hooks or aerial roots or twining or creeps on the ground. Besides being ornamental, these vines are a component of the biodiversity and help sequester Carbon. But it is observed that few of the climbers, act as semi-parasites on the plants they cling to. Almost all climbers which attach themselves to other plants for support only, may even kill the supporting plants by strangling them or blocking out light. These vines are slowly becoming invasive in the hillslopes of Mussoorie, Landour.

The forest patches of mixed Oak – Rhododendron – Deodar and Pine in the hillslopes of Landour, Mussoorie are under the attack of such vines which are slowly becoming invasive.

The fast growing vines take support of the trees, which gradually spread along the tree trunk slowly traversing towards tree canopy. They sometimes prevent sunlight to reach the leaves of the tree creating competition for getting necessary nutrients and liquids.

Eventually, when left uncontrolled and unhindered, these vines can fully conceal a tree’s trunk and its branches. The thick layer of the leaves of the vines conceals the cankers or any other tree diseases, paving way for pathogens to attack the trees. The restricted exposure to cleanse air promotes growth of pathogenic fungi, which may ultimately result in tree infection gradually affecting forest health.

The global climatic changes have triggered the fast growth of these vines and foresters are in dilemma whether or not to control the spread of vines. Many foresters and environmentalists are in support of protecting the majestic trees from these semi parasitic climbers and vines. HFRI former director, called for a pragmatic approach to deal with the issue. He added that, the climbers growing and spreading faster than the trees was not a healthy situation. A rational policy should be adopted to serve the twin purpose of protecting the already- threatened trees and conserving the biodiversity. I too believe it is very important to eliminate such plants which are unwanted or weeds which are affecting the health of the trees. The common vines on the Oak and Deodar trees are Hedera helix or the common ivy, Vitis sp. (*elimination doesn’t mean completely wiping out the species from natural habitat but controlling overspread of the vines and climbers which is harmful for the forests).

How can children help manage forests?Involving children in forest management related activities not only engages children in meaningful action in the face of social isolation and climate crisis but also creating healthy ecosystems. When children practically experience hands-on forest/outdoor related activities, they experience a deeper connection with the very basic elements of life. It further aids towards the development of their psychosocial-emotional, rational as well logical application of concepts in field situation. In one instance, the children helped to remove the excess vines on the trees with the help of pruners. The vines were left to dry slowly on the trees. As the forest becomes healthier, so does the ecosystem within it. Healthy, strong trees attract diverse wildlife, which makes the forest to be even healthier. Effective forest management truly improves the environment for both flora and fauna.


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Forestry for kids: Tree Plantation for Mother’s Day

One of the most extraordinary relationship in the world is the relationship between the mother and her child. Mother’s are the basic foundation of our very existence and first teacher of our life.

©Children participating in Tree Plantation on the account of Mother’s Day

The unique relationship is priceless in terms of her unfathomable love, sacrifice and selfless dedication towards her child. Therefore Mother’s Day is celebrated today all over the world to acknowledge and honour all the Mothers. Mother as described by Rudyard Kipling is as follows

God could not be everywhere, so he made Mother

~ Rudyard Kipling
©Children participating in Tree Plantation on the account of Mother’s Day

The term Mother, refers to nurture, care and support which is also very relatable to the trees growing the forest. The trees laden with fruits bear seeds which fall on the ground and get nourished by the nutrients.

©Children participating in Tree Plantation on the account of Mother’s Day

The big speechless tree, stands at one place and silently supports the baby plants by transferring nutrients and water through underground mycorrhizal networks. Besides, these trees are home to multitude species birds, insects and animals where they carry forward their life cycles, maintaining gene pools.

©Children participating in Tree Plantation on the  account of Mother’s Day

So to commemorate Mother’s Day little children participated in a tree plantation activity along the hillslopes. These trees will not only help to conserve soil, but also will provide various ecosystem services in the coming future.

©Children participating in Tree Plantation on the  account of Mother’s Day

Just like how mothers make the world better in so many ways, trees are central to creating a healthy climate, clean air, clean water, and providing natural habitat to the biodiversity. Trees planted in the outdoors are ideal gifts not only for Mother’s but also for our Planet.

©Tree Plantation activity by children on the  account of Mother’s Day

HAPPY MOTHER’S DAY!!

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Parody of Indian Mock Strawberry : Potentilla indica

Few days back while I was travelling from Landour to Dehradun and came across Indian Mock Strawberry spread along the lush green hill slopes. Earlier this area was covered with little yellow flowers all over but now the flowers have disappeared and little false strawberries have spanned across. Initially they appeared as if someone has spread little red buttons all over. I went closer to have a look into these brilliant red coloured fruits, thought I have found myself juicy strawberry. I picked one fruit only to taste its flavourless taste.

© Indian Mock Strawberry

In the wilderness each colour has specific message. The colour red usually alarms danger, but sometimes it lures birds and animals. Although, I tried tasting the fruit, please take precautions and forage only under guidance. Some described the plant as edible but tasteless into not suitable for human consumption. While some say that it is not suitable for human consumption into not edible. There are few instances when some say it as not edible rather poisonous. I tasted two little fruits and found that the flavourless fruit had a slippery texture and definitely it was non – poisonous. The fruit is edible but the colour of the fruit might lead someone to expect the same as palatable.

©Potentilla indica, Indian Mock Strawberry

Potentilla indica also known as mock strawberry or Indian-strawberry is a flowering plant in the family Rosaceae. It has foliage and fruit similar to that of a true strawberry. This plant has yellow flowers, unlike the white or slightly pink flowers of true strawberries. Indian strawberry is native to eastern and southern Asia, but has been introduced to many other areas as a medicinal and an ornamental plant. It later naturalized in many regions worldwide. It prefers moist and medium drained soil, sunny location with intermittent shade. It can be invasive often spreading freely by runners.

Potentilla means strong, powerful, and the plant and many of its relatives in a family considered to have good medical value. The entire plant is medicinal as an anticoagulant, antiseptic, depurative (purifier) and febrifuge (fever reducer). The herb can be used for stomatitis (an inflammation of the mucus lining), laryngitis, and acute tonsillitis. The fresh leaves can be crushed and applied externally as a medicinal poultice, a soft and moist mass.* It is used in the treatment of boils and absesses, burns, weeping eczema, ringworm, snake and insect bites and traumatic injuries. A decoction of the leaves is medicinal and used in the treatment of swellings. An infusion, or liquid extract, of the flowers is used to activate the blood circulation. The Indian Strawberry can also cure skin diseases. In folklore it is said that in India it is to be used as an offering to the gods. The Wild Indian Strawberry is used extensively in China as a medicinal herb, and is being studied for its ability to stop the HIV virus and some forms of cancer from spreading through the body.


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*https://www.bellarmine.edu/faculty/drobinson/IndianStrawberry.asp

Indian Red Admiral butterfly: Landour, Mussoorie

Today, I came across this vibrant Indian Red Admiral basking in the forest floor, while I was on my way to meet few friends. It is also known as Vanessa indica. Just like the Admiral of a troop, the Indian Red Admiral halted with poise, agile and alert. This is the spring -summer season in the hillside of Landour, Mussoorie and the nature is bustling with the arrival of butterflies.

© Indian Red Admiral

The afternoon mild sunrays infiltrated through the canopy layer of Oak trees on the forest floor. The butterfly flew past forest floor to capture little sunlight left for the day. It inspected it’s surroundings and briskly sensed my presence with the help of its sensory antennas. The swift and agile butterfly was difficult to capture through lenses. Later, it posed with its beautiful wingspan.

© Indian Red Admiral

These fast flying butterflies are difficult to follow. They love stinging nettles and are found in the Himalayas and also different parts of the world.

Indian Red Admiral butterfly 🦋

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Forest trails and untold stories: Mansur shrub, Landour, Mussoorie

Every step I take towards exploring the wilderness in the nature and forest, fills me with enchantment to ken many unfolded stories. Each rock, each pebble, each flower, each plant and their association with different life forms must have a distinct story to tell. Stories which will never be heard of, some lost stories and some stories in the making. Sometimes I wonder, it would have been a different world altogether, if only, the trees, the wild and rocks could speak. Maybe, then they would not have been extinct.

©Mansur berry flowers, Landour, Mussoorie

With these thoughts, I usually get involved in observing the plant types and the hillside which are mostly in full bloom due to the spring – summer season. A few steps further, I was astonished to see a bush covered with little red flowers. I wondered, is it the same plant, that the hill station of Mussoorie got its name from? I went closer to this shrub to have a look into its botanical components and found that it is indeed Masuri Berry. Masuri Berry is a large hairless shrub, 3-4 m tall, with arching redish-brown branches.

©Mansur shrub (Coriaria nepalensis)

The Mansur shrub (Coriaria nepalensis), which once grew in abundance in the hills of Mussoorie and Landour and after which the town was named, is now fading from its landscape and from memories of its residents. During my visits to the forest trails along hillside, I came across very few Mansur berry shrub. The plant once abundant is now under threat. The hillside once flourished with pristine biodiversity, is now facing the wrath of anthropogenic stress. Weeds species are taking over the primary ecofloral diversity is also affecting microbiota of the hillside. The web of life is interconnected and change in one diaspora has affect on another. Once again the thought, if only the plants could speak, they would not have been extinct knocked my mind.

© A Forest trail

The less travelled forest trails are filled with moss and algae sometimes making the pathways bit slippery. The fallen Oak leaves and Pine needles litter makes it more slippery than ever. The season of forest fire is also near. If only, the leaf litter could tell forest fire to take some other course, because, the woodpecker has made his nest on the bole of tallest Pine tree, where its hatchlings are resting. Woodpeckers love making tree holes with their little but strong beaks in the high forest of Pine trees in the hillside.

©Woodpecker on Pine tree trunk, making tree hollow

Red Rhodendrons luring bees, insects, birds and langurs also enlightened humans. Red the colour of love and passion spreads it’s velvety blanket over the hillside during the season of fertility and new life. Without saying a word, these mighty Rhododendron trees must have witnessed multiple generations of creations passing by. The ferns on the forest floor fanning out to catch filtered sunrays through the thick canopy.

Few steps ahead, I found a pile of rocks and debris on the trail due the heavy rainfall last season. I thought of taking my steps back, but something kept me going. Found my way through loose rocks, I moved further to witness many more untold stories of nature.


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Miniature forest of liverworts and mosses: Landour, Mussoorie

The hillside of Landour is rich in diverse species of mosses and Liverworts. It is also home to a distinct liverwort species, Reboulia hemisphearica. It is also known as the Purple fringed liverwort or small mushroom headed liverwort one of the liverworts found in this part of the hillside. These liverworts appeared to me as of little green ribbons with purple fringes.

© Reboulia hemisphearica

The term liverwort originated from the fact that previously herbalists thought the liverworts had some resemblance to a liver – and some use as medicine for liver ailments. Hence the word liverwort for a “liver-like small plant“. There are different species of mosses and liverworts in Landour. These miniature forests of bryophytes are integral part of the ecosystem in the hillside.

© Reboulia hemisphearica

After the long spell of winters, the snow blanket slowly melts away and diamond sparkled water drops seep inside the soil. The mosses underneath get sunkissed and breathe the fresh spring breeze blowing through the trees and the gently touching the soil and rock facets. Alongwith the mosses, liverworts also bask under the warm sunrays.

© Ferns catching sunrays on forest floor

Like mosses, liverworts are land plants that do not have a vascular system. They produce spores instead of seeds just like the ferns. They mostly dwell in wet or moist places. Liverworts are not economically important to humans but they provide food for animals, facilitate the decay of logs, and aid in the disintegration of rocks by their ability to retain moisture.

© Moss and liverwort growing together

Liverworts are distributed worldwide, though most commonly in the tropics. Thallose liverworts, which are branching and ribbon like, grow commonly on moist soil or damp rocks, while leafy liverworts are found in similar habitats as well as on tree trunks in damp woods. In the Indian medicinal system Reboulia hemisphearica is also used to stop bleeding, healing wound as anti inflammatory agent.

©Dried Reboulia hemisphearica on rocky patches

Reboulia hemisphearica is facing some threats worldwide due to global warming and climate change. Also, loss of undisturbed habitats through land-use change, highly invasive weeds and deforestation are some other factors responsible for the ecological habitat and survival of these unnoticeable gift of nature.


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Himalayas: snow cover depletion during pandemic

It’s a known fact that the Himalayas are going through adversities of climate change but it’s yet another sight to witness it with naked eyes. Himalayas are not healthy as they were before. The extent of snow cover over the Himalayas have receded to a greater extent and it was eminent from my observation. Usually during this time of the year, the Himalayas were covered with thick blanket of snow to a much greater extent but somehow I could make out the bare rock facets which were previously covered with snow.

©Receded snow cover, drainage pattern Himalayas

I usually take flight from Delhi and prebook window seats so as to enjoy the breathtaking view of the mighty snow covered Himalayas. But due to Corona pandemic I was unable to travel since two years. Somehow, I made my mind to travel this time and meet my family after many long years. When the flight neared Bagdogra, one is naturally astounded by the picturesque view of the mighty Himalayas. I too enjoyed the view, however, I felt the snow cover has receded to a greater extent. The clustering townships and settlements have risen exponentially within two years, mostly alongside river drainage area. Despite the survey reports, one can observe loss in the green cover. I tried to take pictures from my mobile phone therefore the picture quality is poor.

©Bird’s eye view of Himalayas

In the month of December,despite of dense fog in New Delhi airport, our flight managed to take off and very soon I could see the bird’s eye view of Delhi. The flight slowly started gaining altitude and I could easily demarcate the thick layer of smoke or polluted air over the skies surrounding Delhi NCR. It’s nothing new for me, pollution and Delhi has intricate relation. Machine started gaining speed and altitude and my hopes fastened to have glimpse of the Himalayas again. The aircraft touched the lower stratosphere and I was excited to enjoy the view of the Himalayas, but the clouds somehow obstructed my view.

©Clouds in the lower stratosphere

I could see thick black layer of dust particulates in the lower areas specially over cities with higher urbanisation and industrialization. The thick band was more prominent over heavy industrialised regions. Otherwise lower stratosphere was clearer where there was less pollution. During the pandemic although there were reports that nature is thriving back but the reality is bitter, which has future impacts on health, environment, economic as well as political situation worldwide. Sometimes I wonder, whether mankind should start building settlements somewhere else in universe.

© Beautiful display of clouds

Nature believes in isostacy, today it facing the wrath of mankind, better hope that mankind doesn’t the wrath of nature.


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